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Engaged in various research interests related to social context and address broad-reaching and support partners in developing high-quality research agendas that may be disseminated within the respective field. 

Research interests include the persistence of racism specifically as it relates to public school funding policy, practice, and educational disparities; disproportionate discipline practices; significant disproportionality; urban education, equity, gender performance, school finance in general, and charter school performance for students historically underperforming.




Journal of Education Human Resources

Caldwell, P., Smart, R., & Richardson, J. (2021) An investigation to explain structural racism associated with Michigan public charter districts funding effort.

The research objective is to explain evidence of structural racism, inequity, and inadequacy in the Michigan public school finance system related to the education of Black students or Black descendants of captive and enslaved Africans.  LINK


Principal Leadership. March ed.

Caldwell, P., Pearson, A., & Smart R. (2020) Addressing disproportionate discipline:

Building equity by understanding the need for change.

Decades of research show that students of color are more likely to receive exclusionary discipline practices—such as office discipline referrals or suspensions—than their white counterparts, according to the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. LINK


Journal of Effective Schools Project, Vol 25.

Caldwell, P.  & Smart, R. (2017). An analysis: The resource management of public schools in Michigan.

In Michigan, charter and traditional public schools receive approximately the same operational funding, according to a recent analysis which found that the school resource allocation average for charter school spending represented nearly $800 more per pupil annually on administration and $1100 less on instruction (Arsen and Ni, 2011). LINK

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